Ultrasonic machining in medical surgery: from soft-tissue dissection to hard-tissue cutting报告人:
宋晓菲，天津大学机械工程学院，副教授，博士生导师。主要从事面向外科手术的人体组织先进切割技术及医疗器械（超声刀、水刀）、抗反流人体腔道支架的研究。主持国家自然科学基金4项，天津市自然科学基金1项；作为主要研究人参加863支撑计划项目、973重大项目、04重大专项等国家级重点项目6项、ACSRF澳/中国际合作项目中方主要负责人1项。在Acta Biomater、Int J Mach Tool Manu、J Mech Behav Biomed、Mat Sci Eng A、Med Eng Phys、ASME等发表SCI论文30余篇，其中ISI Top期刊论文3篇，一区论文6篇，二区论文10篇，他引300余次；发表Springer出版专著1章；授权/申请中国发明专利13项，成果转化1项。
Cutting of biological tissues is the most frequently performed procedure in surgery. Ultrasonic cutting has gained increasing attraction and application for biological tissues dissection, ablation or removal in medical surgery. These surgical processes for ultrasonic cutting of specific tissue type exhibit distinct differences not only in action mechanisms but also in ultrasonic surgical devices. We review the related studies and techniques for ultrasound in medicine (Table 1), particularly for ultrasonic dissection of soft and hard tissues in surgery to facilitate understanding of the surgical machining processes, tool solution and removal damage mechanisms for biological tissues. Ultrasonic dissection of soft tissues classified into focused ultrasound, ultrasonic cutting and hemostasis, ultrasonic aspiration and ultrasonic thrombolysis is summarized based on different action mechanisms and application requirements. Traditional cutting and ultrasonic cutting for hard-tissue bone is also considered to evaluate the advances and limitations of ultrasonic cutting for small-volume bone cutting surgery. Furthermore, the newly developed investigations on ultrasonic-assisted cutting of bone have been reviewed to explore the solution strategies for high-efficiency mass-bone cutting surgery. Challenges and future research trends are proposed for improving functionality and extending application of ultrasonic cutting of biological tissues in medicine.
Finally, we present our newly designed rotary ultrasonic-assisted dental handpiece for tooth preparation and prosthesis adjustment with significant reduction in cutting force and edge chipping damage. Our research has proved the feasibility of applying the ultrasonic-assisted machining technique for hard-tissue cutting surgery where edge chipping and cutting efficiency has been a persistent technical challenge.